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What is blockchain? Keys to a revolutionary tech!

Banner with a gold blockchain design and the Colossos logo


  1. Blockchain Basics: A blockchain is a decentralized ledger technology that securely records transactions across multiple computers and using consensus mechanisms like Proof of Work and Proof of Stake.

  2. Advantages: Offers transaction security, transparency, reduces need for intermediaries, and enhances privacy.

  3. Types: Includes public, private, and consortium blockchains, each with specific applications and benefits.

  4. Beyond Cryptocurrencies: Useful in supply chains, identity management, real estate, voting, and healthcare.

  5. Future Outlook: Focuses on scalability, energy efficiency, and regulatory frameworks, with growth in decentralized finance and applications.

  6. Conclusion: Blockchain is a transformative technology, impacting various sectors beyond finance. Colossos promotes its understanding and adoption through a user-friendly web application.

The fundamentals of blockchain

Blockchain is often perceived as a complex and difficult technology to grasp. Yet, by breaking down its fundamental principles, it is possible to better understand how it works and its potential.

To begin with, it is essential to understand that blockchain is a decentralized and distributed database. Concretely, this means that it is not stored on a central server, but rather on several computers (called "nodes") distributed around the world. This decentralization feature ensures its resilience, making it less vulnerable to attacks and outages.

Blockchain consists of a series of blocks that contain records of transactions or other information. Each block is linked to the previous one by a unique identifier called "hash". This series of blocks creates an uninterrupted and tamper-proof chain, the blockchain.

Once a block is added to the chain, it is virtually impossible to change it without altering the entire chain, ensuring data security and integrity.

Another fundamental element of blockchain is the consensus mechanism. This is the process by which nodes in the network agree on the current state of the chain. Consensus is crucial to ensure the consistency and reliability of the data stored on the blockchain.

There are several methods of consensus, among which "Proof of Work" and "Proof of Stake" are the most common. Proof of Work, used for example in the Bitcoin network, is based on the resolution of complex mathematical problems by nodes, called "miners". The Proof of Stake, on the other hand, assigns the right to create a new block based on the amount of cryptocurrency held by a node.

The combination of these elements – decentralization, block linking, and consensus – creates a reliable and secure system for recording and sharing information without the need for a central authority.

Diagram illustrating how a blockchain transaction works

Advantages of blockchain technology

This technology has the potential to transform many aspects of our daily lives and revolutionize many industries. All thanks to these features:

  1. Decentralization and resilience: As we mentioned earlier, one of the most distinctive aspects of blockchain is its decentralization. By distributing data across a network of computers rather than centralizing it on a single server, blockchain greatly reduces the risk of hacking, fraud, and outage. In addition, decentralization strengthens the system's resilience to attacks and failures, as it is much more difficult for a malicious actor to compromise the entire network.
  2. Transparency and traceability: Blockchain offers transparency in transactions and information exchange. Each operation is recorded in a block and can be verified by any participant in the network. This ensures the traceability of transactions and reduces the risk of fraud, corruption, and manipulation.
  3. Transaction security: Blockchain offers an exceptional level of security for transactions and data exchanges. Thanks to the consensus mechanism and the way blocks are linked together, it is extremely difficult to modify or falsify information once it has been added to the chain.
  4. Elimination of intermediaries: One of the most striking features of the blockchain is its ability to eliminate intermediaries in various transactions and processes. Traditionally, trusted third parties, such as banks or notaries, are needed to ensure the validity and execution of transactions. The blockchain makes it possible to carry out these operations in an automated, secure, and transparent way, without the need to use these intermediaries. This can reduce the costs, time and risk associated with traditional transactions.
  5. Automation and efficiency: Blockchain can facilitate process automation through the use of smart contracts. They automate transactions, payments and other processes, increasing the speed of operations. The automation offered by smart contracts can also reduce human error and litigation, while ensuring accurate, real-time execution of completed agreements.
  6. Privacy and data control: Blockchain can give individuals greater control over their personal data and privacy. Indeed, although the blockchain is transparent and accessible to all, users' personal data can be protected by encryption and thus only decrypted by authorized parties, thus ensuring a high level of privacy protection.
  7. Financial inclusion: Blockchain technology has the potential to offer financial services to billions of unbanked people around the world. By providing access to digital financial services such as low-cost payments, loans, and money transfers, blockchain can help reduce poverty and foster economic inclusion.

Infographic of the benefits of blockchain technologyBenefitsofBlockchain

What are the types of blockchains?

There are different types of blockchains, each with its own characteristics and areas of application:

  1. Public blockchains: Public blockchains, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, are open source and allow anyone to participate in the network as a node. These blockchains are usually decentralized and operate without a central authority. Anyone can view transactions, verify data, and participate in the consensus mechanism. However, they can also have drawbacks, such as scalability issues and high energy costs, especially for blockchains using Proof of Work mechanism.
  1. Private blockchains: Unlike public blockchains, private blockchains are controlled by a single entity or a select group of organizations. Access to the network and participation in the consensus mechanism are limited to authorized members. Private blockchains generally offer better performance and privacy than public blockchains because they can be optimized to meet the specific needs of an organization or group of organizations. However, they sacrifice some of the decentralization and resilience that characterize public blockchains and may be more vulnerable to governance and centralization issues.
  2. Consortium blockchains: Consortium blockchains, also known as hybrid or semi-private blockchains, combine the advantages of public and private blockchains. In a consortium blockchain, control of the network is shared among multiple trusted organizations, ensuring a certain level of decentralization while retaining the performance and privacy benefits of private blockchains. They are particularly suitable for business-to-business applications, where collaboration and information sharing between different organizations is essential.

Differences between blockchain and cryptocurrencies

Although blockchain is often associated with cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum, its applications go far beyond the financial realm.

  1. Supply chain and traceability: Blockchain can significantly improve the transparency and traceability of supply chains. By recording information about products, transactions, and shipments in a shared and secure ledger, blockchain makes it possible to track the origin, quality, and movement of goods through the supply chain. This is particularly useful for combating counterfeiting and ensuring compliance with environmental and social standards.

Example: IBM Food Trust is a blockchain-based network that improves traceability and food safety. Supply chain actors share information on the origin, processing, and transport of food. Even though it's currently quite complicated to use public blockchains for supply chain issues due to the cost of transactions.

  1. Identity and personal data management: Blockchain can play a key role in managing digital identities and protecting personal data. By allowing individuals to store and control their own identity information on a decentralized and secure platform, blockchain can reduce the risks of identity theft and data breaches. In addition, it can facilitate access to online services and improve data portability between different platforms.

Example: Veramo is a decentralized digital identity platform (on Ethereum) that allows users to manage and share their identity data in a secure and controlled manner.

  1. Ownership registries and smart contracts: Blockchain can be used to record title deeds and facilitate real estate transactions. By storing asset and transaction information in a shared and secure ledger, blockchain can simplify the processes of verification and transfer of ownership. In addition, smart contracts can automate and secure real estate transactions, reducing the costs and delays associated with traditional processes.

Example: Propy is a real estate platform that uses smart contracts to facilitate real estate transactions and register title deeds.

  1. Governance and e-voting: Blockchain can help improve the governance and transparency of electoral processes. By using a blockchain-based voting platform, it is possible to guarantee the integrity and confidentiality of votes, while facilitating the verification of results. In addition, the blockchain can facilitate citizen participation in decision-making and consultation processes, enabling the creation of platforms for direct democracy and participatory governance.

Example: Voatz is a mobile voting application that aims to improve the security and transparency of elections by ensuring the integrity and confidentiality of votes.

  1. Healthcare sector: Blockchain has great potential in the healthcare sector, especially for medical records management and research. By storing medical data on a decentralized and secure platform, the blockchain can improve privacy, portability, and access to health information. In addition, it can facilitate collaboration and data sharing between researchers and institutions, accelerating the discovery of new therapies and treatments.

Example: Med Rec is a secure and decentralized medical record management system based on Ethereum. It allows patients, doctors, and hospitals to share and access medical records while maintaining data privacy and security.

These examples represent only a fraction of the many sectors that may be impacted by the various applications of the blockchain.(not only finance).

Blockchain Use Case Infographic

Exploring the future of blockchain technology

Blockchain technology is already present in various sectors, but its potential is far from exhausted. To continue its development, it must face challenges and develop new applications:

  1. Improving scalability and energy efficiency: One of the main challenges facing blockchain is the issue of scalability. Public blockchains, in particular, often face performance issues when processing a large number of transactions or inscriptions. To solve this problem, blockchain developers are working on various solutions, such as alternative consensus protocols (such as Proof of Stake), sidechains, and payment channel networks. 
    At the same time, the energy efficiency of blockchains, especially those based on Proof of Work, is also a concern. The use of renewable energy and greener consensus mechanisms are underway.
  1. Interoperability: Interoperability between different blockchains is essential to encourage widespread adoption of the technology and facilitate the exchange of information between different platforms.
    Projects such as Polkadot and Cosmos aim to create an "Internet of blockchains" by developing protocols that allow different blockchains to communicate with each other.
  1. Adoption by companies and governments: Private and consortium blockchains are increasingly being adopted by enterprises and governments for specific applications.
    Blockchain consortia, such as R3 and Hyperledger, have already attracted the attention of major financial institutions and companies in various industries. In addition, several governments have launched pilot projects to explore the use of blockchain in areas such as identity management, land registries, and e-governance. Everyone is starting to get interested in this sector.
  1. Development of decentralized applications (dApps) and decentralized finance (DeFi): These blockchain-based applications operate without central authority. Decentralized finance (DeFi) is a subset of dApps that aims to create an open and accessible financial system, without intermediaries such as banks and financial institutions. DApps and DeFi have grown rapidly in recent years. From decentralized lending, trading, and asset management platforms to stablecoins and decentralized insurance, DeFi offers alternatives to traditional financial services, while expanding access to financial services for the unbanked or underbanked people.
  2. Regulatory and legal evolution: The rapid growth of blockchain and cryptocurrencies has raised legal and regulatory issues in many countries. Governments and regulators face the challenge of creating a balanced regulatory framework that fosters innovation and protects consumers, while preventing illicit activity and ensuring financial stability. In this sense, the Economic Policy Committee of the European Union voted the draft regulation "Markets in Crypto-Assets" ("MiCA") on March 14, 2022 with the objective of framing the players of the cryptocurrency market.


Blockchain is a revolutionary technology that is based on fundamental principles such as decentralization, transparency, and security. Its advantages, including immutability, elimination of intermediaries and resistance to censorship, make it an innovative solution for many industries.

This ever-evolving technology has immense potential to transform our world. As new challenges are faced and new applications are discovered, it is likely that blockchain will continue to shape our future in significant ways.

In this article, you have just understood the challenges of blockchain, its values and how it can revolutionize our different sectors of life. In addition to the financial side, blockchain is the technology that must be understood to better understand this entire ecosystem.

About Colossos 

At Colossos, we aim to communicate and evangelize about these technologies. We have brought together blockchain-based cryptocurrency projects in one simple, intuitive, and user-friendly application. The goal of our crypto bank is to gradually introduce you to these worlds and familiarize you with cryptocurrency investment.